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Research Article

Academia Journal of Biotechnology 4(11): 422-429, November 2016
DOI: 10.15413/ajb.2016.0285
ISSN: 2315-7747
2016 Academia Publishing


A case-study of the Lifestyles Characteristics and the Risk of Anaemic among Menin Peri-urban Community in Accra, Ghana

Accepted 6th June, 2016

Frederick Vuvor*, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Firibu Saalia and William Bruce Owusu

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Biological Sciences, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: fredvuvor@yahoo.com. Tel:+233244608344.


Anaemia is a reduction in circulating red blood cells which directly affect the concentrations of haemoglobin. This affects cognitive development and cause fatigue and low productivity. Apart from overt or covert haemorrhage, intestinal and urinary infestation of worms and blood infection of microbes, anaemia is mostly caused by deficiency of dietary nutrients such as iron, Folic acid, vitamin B12, sometimes vitamin C, copper or dietary protein. The most common of all is dietary iron deficiency anaemia. In addition, many factors such as socio-economic status, and lifestyles contribute to anaemia. Iron deficiency, is still a problem that persists in the world especially in many underdeveloped countries. A cross-sectional study in a peri urban community in Ghana enrolled one thousand four hundred and forty-nine (1,449) healthy men aged ≥18 years. The study assessed their lifestyle variables, dietary intake and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), body mass index (BMI), clinical assessment and their blood haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Determinants of risk of developing anaemia was estimated using binary logistic regression analysis. An alpha level of 5% were considered significant. Biochemical and clinical examinations revealed that 18.8% of the participants were anaemic (Hb ≤13b/dL). The anaemia prevalence found in this study was higher than global prevalence for men. Dietary status of the participants were below the cut-off of 60% NARfor all nutrients assessed except for iron (84%) and protein (55%) that fell below 40% NAR. Participants’ diet were largely plant based which was another possibility of not making the iron bio-available. The output of the binary logistic regression indicated that participants who used tobacco were about 16 (Odds ratio: 16.39, p<0.01) times more likely to be anaemic as compared with non-users. In the same model, men whose intake of protein was (<60% NAR) were 3 (Odds ratio: 3.44, p<0.01) times more likely to be anaemic. Iron is needed for haemoglobin while protein is needed for protoporphyrin and globin for haemoglobin synthesis. Tobacco smoking and low intake of protein were high risk factors for the incidence of anaemia among men in a peri urban community in Ghana.

Key words: Anaemia, nicotine, haemoglobin, protoporphyrin.

This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Cite this article as:

Vuvor F, Steiner-Asiedu M, Saalia KF, Owusu WB (2016). A case-study of the Lifestyles Characteristics and the Risk of Anaemic among Menin Peri-urban Community in Accra, Ghana. Acad. J. Biotechnol. 4(11): 422-429.

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