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Review Article

Academia Journal of Enviromental Science 9(8): 041-055, August 2021
DOI: 10.15413/ajes.2020.0127
ISSN: ISSN 2315-778X
2021 Academia Publishing

Abstract

 

Understanding anthropogenic and geogenic controls on major elements of water quality in arid and semi-arid areas in Africa: A review

 

Accepted 31st March, 2021

 

Saadu Umar Wali1, Sheikh Danjuma Abubakar2, Ibrahim Mustapha Dankani2, Murtala Abubakar Gada2 and Kabiru Jega Umar3

1Department of Geography, Federal University Birnin kebbi, P.M.B. 1057, Kebbi State, Nigeria
2Department of Geography, UsmanuDanfodiyo University Sokoto, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto State, Nigeria
3Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Federal University Birninkebbi, P.M.B 1157, Kebbi State, Nigeria.

The global dry-lands constitute a unique ecological system which is primarily characterized by low rainfall, high rate of evaporation and scanty vegetation cover. These in conjunction with environmental and land-use changes, exert heavy pressure on water resources. The objective of this review is to assess the influence of natural geogenic and anthropogenic activities on the hydrochemical composition of streams and aquifers in drier parts of Africa. Water quality studies were scrutinized, in order to identify the natural geogenic and anthropogenic origin of ions in water. Results indicated that the hydrochemical composition of streams and aquifers is controlled by natural geogenic processesas well as anthropogenic activities. Also, the current environmental change has further worsened the water quality situation through declines in annual rainfall with its resultant consequences on the over-abstraction of groundwater aquifers, which has led to saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Thus, it is difficult to separate natural geogenic and anthropogenic controls on water quality. This is because ions that are derived naturally from rock minerals are increasingly being added into the environment through human activities. Hence, the rationality for establishing the origin of ions in streams and aquifers proved to be very difficult. Consequently, water quality results must be interpreted within the framework of the existing environmental conditions, land use types and regularly essential standard application for reporting water quality in the literature.

Key words: Anthropogenic inputs, geogenic processes, groundwater depletionsurface water quality; municipal and industrial sewage, agrochemicals.

This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Cite this article as:
Wali SU, Abubakar SD, Dankani IM, Gada MA, Umar KJ (2021). Understanding anthropogenic and geogenic controls on major elements of water quality in arid and semi-arid areas in Africa: A review. Acad. J. Environ. Sci. 9(8): 041-055.

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