Entropic expansion and the true age of the universe –
based on space particle dualism theory
Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Space particle dualism theory (SPD) is an
overarching quantum theory of gravity, created
and developed by the author in 2005. It is the
first approach to quantum gravity which does not
use Planck size entities as building blocks for
space. Instead each particle carries a quantum
of space which is a complex 2-sphere with a
radius of R
SPD is also
the only approach to quantum gravity which
doesn’t predict gravitons. In fact it does away
with conventional gravity all together, Newton’s
famous law of gravity is
number of quarks nq1 and nq2
in two gravitational bodies. The principle
behind this is that in SPD space is made of
overlapping complex 2-spheres with a granular
dimensionality, with n denoting the
number of connections from one elementary space
to other elementary spaces (or surfaces).
Charged particles emit virtual gauge bosons
which carry their own elementary spaces That
results in a higher granular dimensionality DG
, with n
and a higher vacuum connectivity nE
around charged particles. More pathways lead
through such charge containing regions of space.
The various experimentally confirmed effects of
special and general relativity can be explained
using uniformly growing elementary spaces (SR)
and uniformly changing granular dimensionality (GR).
The fact that, unlike GR, in SPD gravity depends
on density differences, and not on absolute
values of mass or energy, the vacuum catastrophe
is avoided and the flatness problem is solved.
This also means that very similarly as in
Newton’s theory of gravity, there is nothing
which could make the universe collapse, while
Einstein had to introduce an arbitrary
in order to avoid the collapse. An expansion of
the universe can be built into the theory as
well, but it is just as arbitrary as the static
universe using the cosmological constant. In SPD
expands to compensate the entropy increase in
black holes. This type of entropic expansion,
which leads to a constant entropy density of the
universe during its entire history will be the
focus of this present study.
Key words: Space particle dualism theory,
granular dimensionality, entropic expansion.
This is an open access article
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Cite this article as:
Darmos S (2020). Entropic expansion and the true age of the universe – based on
space particle dualism theory. Acad. J. Sci. Res.