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Research Article

Academia Journal of Scientific Research 8(10): 290-319, October 2020
DOI: 10.15413/ajsr.2020.0124
ISSN 2315-7712
2020 Academia Publishing


Entropic expansion and the true age of the universe – based on space particle dualism theory


Accepted 11th June, 2020

Sky Darmos

Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

Space particle dualism theory (SPD) is an overarching quantum theory of gravity, created and developed by the author in 2005. It is the first approach to quantum gravity which does not use Planck size entities as building blocks for space. Instead each particle carries a quantum of space which is a complex 2-sphere with a radius of 𝑅         with SPD is also the only approach to quantum gravity which doesn’t predict gravitons. In fact it does away with conventional gravity all together, Newton’s famous law of gravity 𝐹 = 𝐺 𝑚1 𝑚2  is replaced by  with  and  being the number of quarks  𝑛q1    and 𝑛q2 in two gravitational bodies. The principle behind this is that in SPD space is made of overlapping complex 2-spheres with a granular dimensionality, with  𝑛  denoting the number of connections from one elementary space to other elementary spaces (or surfaces). Charged particles emit virtual gauge bosons which carry their own elementary spaces That results in a higher granular dimensionality 𝐷𝐺 with 𝑛 and a higher vacuum connectivity 𝑛𝐸 around charged particles. More pathways lead through such charge containing regions of space. The various experimentally confirmed effects of special and general relativity can be explained using uniformly growing elementary spaces (SR) and uniformly changing granular dimensionality (GR). The fact that, unlike GR, in  SPD gravity depends on density differences, and not on absolute values of mass or energy, the vacuum catastrophe is avoided and the flatness problem is solved. This also means that very similarly as in Newton’s theory of gravity, there is nothing which could make the universe collapse, while Einstein had to introduce an arbitrary cosmological constant 𝜆 in order to avoid the collapse. An expansion of the universe can be built into the theory as well, but it is just as arbitrary as the static universe using the cosmological constant. In SPD expands to compensate the entropy increase in black holes. This type of entropic expansion, which leads to a constant entropy density of the universe during its entire history will be the focus of this present study.

Key words: Space particle dualism theory, granular dimensionality, entropic expansion.

This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Cite this article as:

Darmos S (2020). Entropic expansion and the true age of the universe – based on space particle dualism theory. Acad. J. Sci. Res. 8(10): 290-319.

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