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Research Article

Academia Journal of Scientific Research 9(1): 028-041, January 2021
DOI: 10.15413/ajsr.2020.0415
ISSN 2315-7712
2021 Academia Publishing

Abstract


Resolving empirical paradox generating new kinds of knowledge
 

 

Accepted 18th December, 2020

Bruce J. West

Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA.

A logical paradox is a self-contradictory statement, whereas an empirical paradox (EP) arises in science when a phenomenon is observed to possess two characteristics that theoretically contradict one another. The thesis developed in the following remarks is that paradox is entailed by complexity, and a sufficiently rich dynamic process generates behaviors that when viewed in any snapshot of time are judged to be incompatible. The self-organized time criticality (SOTC) model shows that this incompatibility stimulates adaptive behavior, which is modeled to drive a two-level network towards criticality, thereby retaining complexity, on the one hand, while resolving paradox, on the other and consequently generates new kinds of knowledge. A social/biological exemplar of resolving an EP using the SOTC model is the altruism paradox (AP) in which individuals act in their own self interest, while counter-intuitively maximizing the benefit to society, examples of which are legion.


Key words: Logical paradox, empirical paradox, self-organized time criticality.
 

This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Cite this article as:

 

West BJ (2020). Resolving empirical paradox generating new kinds of knowledge. Acad. J. Sci. Res. 9(1): 028-041.

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