Facebook Twitter Linkedin
  home bred bred bred bred bred bred bred  
btn Academia Journal of Biotechnology
btn Journal of Business and Economic     Management
btn  Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants
btn Academia Journal of Environmental     Sciences
btn Academia Journal of Agricultural     Research
btn Academia Journal of Educational     Research
btn Academia Journal of Food Research
btn Academia Journal of Scientific     Research
btn Academia Journal of Microbiology    Research
btn  Engineering and Technology
btn Academia Journal of Pharmacy and     Pharmacology
btn Medicine and Medical Sciences



  1. Med Med Sci

Related Articles

  1. Google Scholar

  2. PubMed


Research Article

Medicine and Medical Sciences 7(7): 087-091, July 2019
DOI: 10.15413/mms.2019.0113
ISSN 2682-5759
2019 Academia Publishing



Kinematic analysis of lesions in lower parts of the spine during breaststroke swimming - implications for physiotherapists organizing therapy in water



Accepted 26th July, 2019


Grzegorz Konieczny1*, Krystyna Antoniak-Lewandowska2, Daria Rudnik2 and Piotr Synowiec3

1Faculty of Health Sciences and Physical Education, Witelona State University of Applied Sciences in Legnica, ul. Sejmowa 5A, 59-220 Legnica, Poland.
2Unit of Swimming, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland.
3Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.

Swimming is clearly recommended for people with lower back pain. Usually, however, front or the back crawl is recommended for patients with lower back pain. However, the electromyographic research on abdominal muscles shows that exercises with resistance of a symmetrical effect prevent pain in the lumbar spine. Swimming breaststroke rarely is consistent with medical ordination. It was assumed that in patients with posterior derangement (McKenzie classification), swimming back extension (hyperextensions) can serve as supportive treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the actual range of motion of the hyperextended spine while swimming in recreational breaststroke style. The study involved 15 people. The film method and the SIMI Motion software were used to monitor the movement of the spine in the water. Six active markers in the form of light-emitting diodes reflecting spine were placed on the side of the subject’s body. Markers formed a line connecting the axis of the hip with the axis of the glenohumeral joint. The purpose was to cross backstroke stretch of 25 m. The evaluation of the degree of the spine hyperextension during recreational swimming breaststroke was based on the value analysis of the angles included between the markers. Analytical procedures consist in calculating extremes and average standard deviation for each angle. Five repetitions of the measurement were adopted for every person tested , which in further procedure allowed to calculate that the average standard deviation of the angle values at each point in time is within the range of ABC <1.7; 9.7>, BCD <1.2; 5.5> and CDE <2.6; 8.0> in order to obtain the actual value of the angle for each individual arithmetic mean value of the angle for successive time points after five attempts was calculated. The study showed that in all patients, hyperextension was contained within the range of 14 to 19.4. The maximum range of hyperextended motions obtained during the test is within the physiological limits. Hyperextensions can be considered as a supportive treatment of the posterior derangement at which the treating motion under the land conditions is hyperextension in both supine and standing position.

Key words: Kinematics; Lumbar spine, Range of movement, Lower back pain, McKenzie method, Aquatherapy.



This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cite this article as:


Konieczny G, Lewandowska KA, Rudnik D, Synowiec P (2019). Kinematic analysis of lesions in lower parts of the spine during breaststroke swimming - implications for physiotherapists organizing therapy in water. Med. Med. Sci. 7(7): 087-091.

Copyright © 2019 Academia Publishing. All rights reserved